The history of the development of ultrasonic sonar, from discovery to application

- Jun 03, 2019-

Original|Operation takes you to learn history

Sonar is a system that uses transmitted and reflected underwater sound waves to detect and locate underwater objects or to measure underwater distances. It has been used for submarine and mine detection, depth detection, commercial fishing, diving safety and maritime communications. The sonar device will emit an underground sound wave and then listen for the returned echo. The sound data is then transmitted to the operator through the speaker or through a display on the monitor.

what is sonar


As early as 1822, Daniel Crowden used an underwater clock to calculate the speed of underwater sounds at Lake Geneva, Switzerland. This early study led other inventors to invent a dedicated sonar device. In 1906, Lewis Nixon invented the first sonar-type listening device as a way to detect icebergs. During the First World War, interest in hoarseness increased when it was necessary to be able to detect submarines. In 1915, Paul Langévin invented the first sonar-type device for detecting submarines, called "detecting the echo position of the submarine", using the piezoelectric properties of quartz.

detecting the echo position of the submarine

Although Langévin's work had a great impact on the future sonar design, his invention came too late to help the war. The first sonar device is a passive listening device, meaning that no signal is being sent. By 1918, both the United Kingdom and the United States had established active systems (active sonar signals were sent out and then recovered). An acoustic communication system is a sonar device in which both sides of the signal path have acoustic projectors and receivers. The invention of acoustic transducers and highly efficient acoustic projectors has made possible more advanced sonar forms possible.

sonar history

Sonar - SO UND, NA vigation and - [R anging

The term Sonar was the first American term used in the Second World War. It is an acronym for SOund, NAvigation and Ranging. The United Kingdom also called Sonar "ASDICS", representing the Anti-Submarine Detection and Investigation Commission. Sonar's later developments include echo sounders or depth detectors, fast scan sonar, side scan sonar and WPESS (intrapulse electronic sector scan) sonar.

There are two main types of sonar

The active sonar produces a sound pulse, commonly referred to as "ping", which then listens for the reflection of the pulse. The pulse can be a constant frequency or a frequency change. If it is a click, the receiver correlates the reflected frequency with a known "DI-U-". The resulting processing gain allows the receiver to derive the same information as if it were a shorter pulse with the same total power. Typically, long-distance active sonars use lower frequencies. The bass has the bass "BAH-WONG".

Passive sonar

In order to measure the distance to the object, the time from the transmission of the pulse to the reception can be measured. Passive sonar can be listened to without transmission. They are usually military, although some are scientific. Passive sonar systems typically have large sonic databases. Computer systems often use these databases to identify vessel categories, actions (ie speed of the ship, or type of weapon released) and even specific vessels.

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